Powder metallurgy is a process technology that produces metal or uses metal powder (or a mixture of metal powder and non-metal powder) as raw materials, after forming and sintering, to produce metal materials, composites and various types of products. Powder metallurgy has similarities with the production of ceramics. Therefore, a series of new powder metallurgy technologies can also be used for the preparation of ceramic materials. Due to the advantages of powder metallurgy technology, it has become the key to solving the problem of new materials and plays a pivotal role in the development of new materials.
My country's powder metallurgy industry has undergone rapid development for nearly 10 years, but there are still gaps with foreign counterparts in the following aspects: (1) There are many companies, small in scale, and economic benefits are very different from those of foreign companies. (2) The products are cross-cutting, and the companies keep their prices down, and the competition is fierce. (3) Most companies lack technical support, backward research and development capabilities, and low-grade products, making it difficult to compete with foreign countries. (4) Lack of reinvestment and distress. Add (5) Process equipment and supporting facilities are backward. (6) The export of products is small and the trade channels are not smooth.
With my country’s accession to the WTO, the above deficiencies and weaknesses will be improved. This is because after China’s accession to the WTO, the market will gradually become international, and the powder metallurgy market will have opportunities for further expansion. At the same time, with the entry of foreign capital and technology, powder metallurgy And related technical level will also be improved and developed.
Powder metallurgy has unique chemical composition and mechanical and physical properties, and these properties cannot be obtained by traditional casting methods. The use of powder metallurgy technology can directly produce porous, semi-dense or fully dense materials and products, such as oil-bearing bearings, gears, cams, guide rods, cutting tools, etc., which is a rare cutting process.
(1) Powder metallurgy technology can minimize the segregation of alloy components and eliminate coarse and uneven casting structure. In the preparation of high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials, rare earth hydrogen storage materials, rare earth luminescent materials, rare earth catalysts, high temperature superconducting materials, new metal materials (such as Al-Li alloys, heat-resistant Al alloys, super alloys, powder corrosion-resistant stainless steel, powder High-speed steel, intermetallic compounds, high-temperature structural materials, etc.) play an important role.
(2) A series of high-performance non-equilibrium materials such as amorphous, microcrystalline, quasicrystalline, nanocrystalline and supersaturated solid solution can be prepared. These materials have excellent electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties.
(3) It can easily realize multiple types of composites and give full play to the respective characteristics of each component material. It is a low-cost process technology for the production of high-performance metal matrix and ceramic composite materials.
(4) It can produce materials and products with special structures and properties that cannot be produced by ordinary smelting methods, such as new porous biological materials, porous separation membrane materials, high-performance structural ceramic abrasive tools and functional ceramic materials.
(5) Net near formation and automated mass production can be realized, thereby effectively reducing the resource and energy consumption of production.
(6) It can make full use of ore, tailings, steelmaking sludge, rolling steel scale, and recycling scrap metals as raw materials. It is a new technology that can effectively regenerate and comprehensively utilize materials.
Many of our common machining tools and metal abrasives are manufactured by powder metallurgy technology.